Type 1 diabetes accounts for between 5 to 15 percent of all people having diabetes. It can be controlled through daily insulin injections, a healthy diet and regular physical activity.
Type 1 Diabetes is caused when insulin-producing cells of the body get destroyed due to a virus or some other infection.
Type 2 diabetes typically gets triggered due to a sedentary lifestyle, which lacks the elements of physical activities such as walking and exercise. However it can also be caused due to factors of age and heredity.
Type 2 Diabetes is a condition in which body does not produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level, or is unable to effectively use the insulin that is being produced. Type 2 diabetes is more common in overweight people. Needless to say, the rapid urbanisation of lifestyles is leading to an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that affects women during pregnancy. It has been observed to affect 1 in 25 pregnancies worldwide and is associated with complications in the period immediately before and after birth causing high blood glucose levels. Gestational diabetes deserves due medical attention as besides putting the mother at risk, it even puts the offspring at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
Diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic exocrine disease is a unique clinical and metabolic form of diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes is challenging because it is often painless and not always accompanied by clinical malabsorption until after hyperglycaemia occurs.
Similar to other forms of diabetes, the primary hormonal abnormality in pancreatic diabetes is the symptom of decreased insulin secretion. Individuals suffering from this disorder have low glucagon levels that respond abnormally to several physiological stimuli and show blunted epinephrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Another factor commonly found in effected individuals is concomitant alcohol abuse with hepatic disease and poor level of nutrition.
Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is more likely to be inherited than other types of diabetes due to a stronger genetic risk factor.
It affects approximately one or two percent of people who have diabetes, and may often go unrecognised in its early stages. It also runs in families, and can pass from one generation to the next. MODY does not always require insulin treatment. However, MODY is not linked to obesity, and typical MODY patients are young and not necessarily overweight.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycaemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. IGT may precede type 2 diabetes mellitus by many years. IGT is also a risk factor for mortality.
Glucose Intolerance is marked by symptoms such as tiredness, hypertension, lack of concentration and digestive problems.