Sugar clinic in Bangalore


A1c (HbA1c)
The A1C (A-one-C), short for haemoglobin A1C measures average blood glucose (sugar) over the last 3 months. This should be below 6.5% if you are controlling by diet or by metformin alone. If you are on insulin or complex treatment you should aim below 7.5% as you may have hypo below that level.

This is often seen in diabetes and is associated with insulin resistance. Brown, velvety patches in the axilla and body folds characterize it.

Drug used for the treatment for Type 2 diabetes. It prevents breakdown of complex carbohydrate in intestine so often gives flatulence and diarrhoea as side effects.

ACE inhibitors
Drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). It also help prevent or slow nephropathy (the damage to kidney) in people with diabetes. Cough is the common side effect.

Acidosis: See Ketoacidosis
ADA (American Diabetes Association)
This is an American organisation helping develop understanding of diabetes.

Adult-Onset Diabetes
Now known as type 2 diabetes.

Alcohol in Diabetes
People with diabetes can also enjoy a drink. However alcohol does have an effect on blood sugar levels and it may cause severe hypoglycaemia. Therefore binge drinking has to be avoided.

Alternative Medical Therapies for Diabetes
Many people use alternative medical therapies for diabetes. These include dietary supplements (egmethi, cinnamon, gourd), yoga, acupuncture or Ayurvedic medicines. Although some of these therapies may be effective, others can be ineffective or even harmful. Patients who use these therapies should inform their health care providers.

Amayotrophy (Diabetic)
A type of diabetic neuropathy that causes pain, weakness and wasting of thigh muscles.

Surgical removal of part of limb. Amputation of leg is a common complication of diabetes.

Angina (Ischaemic Heart Disease)
Angioplasty (Heart)
Angioplasty (Peripheral)
Annual Review in Diabetes

Arthropathy (Neuropathic)
See Charcot foot

Artificial Pancreas
A closed loop system where blood glucose is continuously monitored, necessary dose of insulin is calculated by computer programme and appropriate amount of insulin is given by insulin pump. This is still in experimental state.

A common tablet prescribed to prevent heart attack and stroke which is common in diabetes. It thins the blood and prevents blockage of blood vessels.<./p>

A condition when fat builds up in the blood vessel causing it to be narrowed with risk for blockage. People with diabetes are three time more prone to develop this.

Autoimmune Disease
In this condition the body’s immune system attack and destroy various organs believing it not to belong as its own. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells.

Autonomic Neuropathy
A type of neuropathy that affect internal organs of body. It can affect stomach givinggastroparesis, heart causing postural hypotension, bladder causing urinary retention and sexual organ causing impotence.

Ayurvedic medicines
Many plants extracts can lower blood sugar and are available in different format as Ayurvedic/Homeopathic medicines all over the world. However the content of active compounds in these medicines is not tested rigorously and scientifically. The amount of active ingredients are also not standardised which can affect t treatment. It is very important to discuss with your doctor if you are taking them.


Background Retinopathy
Early stage of diabetic retinopathy that does not affect vision or need treatment. It is also called non-proliferative retinopathy. It needs regular check up.

Bariatric Surgery
Surgery of stomach performed in very obese patient that restricts what they eat leading to weight loss. Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes and it may go into remission.

Basal insulin
Long acting Insulin (Levemir, Lantus, Isophane) given once or twice a day to counteract sugar produced by liver in between meals.

Basal Bolus insulin
A regime of giving multiple (usually 4) doses of insulin. Basal insulin is usually given once a day at bed time and bolus insulin is given 3 times a day before meal.

Beta cells
Cells in the pancreas in areas called the Islets of Langerhans that make and release hormone insulin needed to control level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

Beta Cell Transplantation
See Islet Transplant

Biphasic Insulin
See Pre-mixed insulin

Blood Glucose monitoring
It is the test done by patient usually at home to check the level of glucose in their blood by testing a drop of blood.


Blood Pressure
It is the pressure within the blood vessel occurred due to contraction of the heart. Blood pressure is usually written as 2 figures (eg 140/90) where higher figure is the systolic blood pressure and lower pressure is diastolic blood pressure. In diabetes blood pressure should be below 130 /80. Higher blood pressure is the main cause of stroke and other problems such as nephropathy, retinopathy and heart attack.

BM Test
See blood glucose monitoring
Bolus insulin:
BMI and diabetes
Borderline Diabetes: See Pre-diabetes

Brittle Diabetes
Occasionally some patients with type 1 diabetes have great difficulty to control blood sugar. It fluctuates from very high sugar to very low sugar within a short period. It is often found in patients who do not adhere to the treatment advice.

Bronze Diabetes
See hemochromatosis
Breastfeeding and Diabetes
Bypass (peripheral)
Bypass (Heart)


Calcium Channel Blocker
A drug to lower blood pressure

Hard skin on the pressure area. In foot it can lead to ulcers.

Unit of measurement of energy that comes from food and is lost through exercise. Fats have high calories but salads have least. In general average sedentary man needs 1800 calorie and women 1600 every day. Excess calorie leads to weight gain and its deficit leads to weight loss. Calorie calculation is important if one wants to lose weight.

Cancer and diabetes

Cream derived from hot chilli pepper that is used to treat painful neuropathy.

Carbohydrates are basic food component found in common food substances. It can be simple (mainly sugars) which is found in sweets, sugar, cakes and chocolates. The glucose absorbs very fast from the intestine when simple carbohydrates is consumed. Therefore this should preferably be avoided by people with diabetes. It can be complex (mainly starches) which is found in rice, chapatti, naan. The glucose absorbs slowly from complex carbohydrates. People with diabetes should consume complex carbohydrate in moderation.

Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy

An eye condition where people cannot see properly because of clouding of the lens. This is often found in old age but may be seen in young people who have diabetes.

Celiac Disease
This is an autoimmune disorder of intestine triggered by cereal proteins called gluten that leads malabsorption that can cause anaemia. This disease can be present in 5% of people with type 1 diabetes. It can be detected by doing blood test and endoscopy.

  • Central obesity
  • Cerebrovascular Disease
  • Charcot Foot
  • Cheiroarthropathy (Limited joint mobility)
  • Cholesterol
  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
  • Cinnamon

Congenital Defects
These are abnormalities which are present at birth. Poor control of diabetes in Pregnancy can lead to this.

Clinical Trial
See Randomised clinical trial

It is substance found in blood secreted by beta cells of pancreas along with insulin. It can be measured to assess the amount of insulin secreted.



Depression in Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes type 1

Diabetes type 2

Diabetes Type 2 in children

Diabetes UK


Diagnosis of diabetes



Diabetic coma

Diarrhoea (Diabetic)

Dementia in Diabetes

Driving in Diabetes


Dupuytren’s contracture




Erectile Dysfunction

End-stage renal disease (ESRD)




Fasting Hyperglycaemia


Fatty Liver

Fibre (Dietary)



Fluorescein angiography


See Glutamoic Acid Decarboxylase

Gestational Diabetes
It is a condition when a woman without previous diabetes develops diabetes during pregnancy. Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes have increased risk of being large and may develop other problems. Women with gestational diabetes are also at increased risk of complications. It can be diagnosed by doing an oral glucose tolerance test. They can be treated with diet, metformin and some may also need insulin. These women have higher incidence diabetes at as later date.

  • Gliptins
  • GLP -1 analogues
  • Glucagon
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glutamoic Acid Decarboxylase: An enzyme found in body. Antibodies to GAD can be present in blood of people with Type 1
  • Diabetes even before it is diagnosed.
  • GlycatedHaemoglobin

Glycaemic Index
The glycemic index (GI) is a ranking of carbohydrates on a scale from 0 to 100 according to the extent to which they raise blood sugar levels within 3 hours after eating. Sugars and Indian sweets have GI as high as 100. White rice has GI of 80 but brown rice has only 50. Foods with high GI are rapidly absorbed resulting in marked rise in blood sugar in diabetes. Low-GI foods such as whole wheat chapatti, whole grain bread improve both glucose and lipid levels in people with diabetes.

Type of climbing plants related to the pumpkin, squash, and cucumber which bear fruits with a hard rind. Bitter gourd has been used as traditional medicine for diabetes. More recently bottle gourd (lauki) is gaining popularity in India as Ayurvedic care to control high blood sugar.

  • Guardian drugs
  • Gustatory Sweating in Diabetes


Haemochromatosis and diabetes
Heart Attack
Heart Failure
Honeymoon Diabetes
Hyperosmolar Nonketosis (HONK or HSS)
Hypertension: High blood pressure.

Hypo: See hypoglycaemia

It is a condition of low blood sugar. This occurs in people with diabetes usually if meal is missed or after exercise. If HbA1c is below 7.5% there is more risk of hypoglycaemia when diabetes is treated with insulin or sulfonylurea. It produces symptoms of sweating, feeling hungry and palpitation which if not corrected leads to fits and unconsciousness.


Impaired Glucose Tolerance
Impotency (Erectile Dysfunction)
Insulin Resistance
Ischaemic Heart Diseases
Islet transplant in diabetes




Ketoacidosis (DKA)


Small pin used to prick finger to collect drop of blood for test.
Laser Treatment

See Gourd
Limited joint mobility


Macrosomia (Fetus)
Menstrual Cycle and diabetes
Menopause and Diabetes
Metabolic Syndrome
Microvascular Disease
Mixed Insulin: See Pre-mixed insulin
MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes in Young)
Myocardial Infarction
Myths about Diabetes


NAFLD (Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)

Kidney damage caused by diabetes presenting with microalbuminuria which progresses to proteinuria that ultimately leads to chronic kidney disease and kidney failure needing dialysis or transplant. The main cause for this is high blood sugar, high blood pressure and long duration of diabetes. ACE inhibitors prevent progression of nephropathy.

Neuropathy (Peripheral)
Neuropathy (Painful)
New Drugs


Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Diabetes
Osteomyelitis (Diabetic foot)


Painful neuropathy
Pancreatic Diabetes
Pancreatic Cancer and Diabetes
Pancreatic transplant in diabetes
Polycystic ovary and diabetes
Postural Hypotension in Diabetes
Pre-mixed insulin:Pre-pregnancycounselling in diabetes
Pregnancy (in Diabetes):Proteinuria
PVD (Peripheral Vascular Disease)




Randomised clinical trial
Renal Failure
Risk of Developing Diabetes


Self Glucose Monitoring
Sexual Dysfunction Male (Erectile Dysfunction)
Sexual Dysfunction (Female)
Smoking in Diabetes
Statistics of Diabetes
Steroid induced Diabetes
Steroid treatment in Diabetes
Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease)
Surgery in Diabetes
Sweating in Diabetes (Gustatory)


Teeth and diabetes
Treatment target
TIA (Transient Ischaemic Attack)
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes


Ulcer (Diabetic foot)
Urinary Incontinence in Diabetes




Weight loss and diabetes
World Diabetes Day


X-Ray in diabetes


Yoga and diabetes



Even before you commence upon a diabetes management program, it is essential to know the type of diabetes you are suffering from. It is on the basis of this information, that you can decide your pattern of self-management and medical intervention.

Globally, experts have categorised diabetes into the following types:

Type 1 diabetes accounts for between 5 to 15 percent of all people having diabetes. It can be controlled through daily insulin injections, a healthy diet and regular physical activity.

Type 1 Diabetes is caused when insulin-producing cells of the body get destroyed due to a virus or some other infection.

Type 2 diabetes typically gets triggered due to a sedentary lifestyle, which lacks the elements of physical activities such as walking and exercise. However it can also be caused due to factors of age and heredity.

Type 2 Diabetes is a condition in which body does not produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level, or is unable to effectively use the insulin that is being produced. Type 2 diabetes is more common in overweight people. Needless to say, the rapid urbanisation of lifestyles is leading to an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that affects women during pregnancy. It has been observed to affect 1 in 25 pregnancies worldwide and is associated with complications in the period immediately before and after birth causing high blood glucose levels. Gestational diabetes deserves due medical attention as besides putting the mother at risk, it even puts the offspring at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

Diabetes mellitus caused by pancreatic exocrine disease is a unique clinical and metabolic form of diabetes caused by chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis of pancreatic diabetes is challenging because it is often painless and not always accompanied by clinical malabsorption until after hyperglycaemia occurs.

Similar to other forms of diabetes, the primary hormonal abnormality in pancreatic diabetes is the symptom of decreased insulin secretion. Individuals suffering from this disorder have low glucagon levels that respond abnormally to several physiological stimuli and show blunted epinephrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Another factor commonly found in effected individuals is concomitant alcohol abuse with hepatic disease and poor level of nutrition.

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is more likely to be inherited than other types of diabetes due to a stronger genetic risk factor.

It affects approximately one or two percent of people who have diabetes, and may often go unrecognised in its early stages. It also runs in families, and can pass from one generation to the next. MODY does not always require insulin treatment. However, MODY is not linked to obesity, and typical MODY patients are young and not necessarily overweight.

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycaemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. IGT may precede type 2 diabetes mellitus by many years. IGT is also a risk factor for mortality.

Glucose Intolerance is marked by symptoms such as tiredness, hypertension, lack of concentration and digestive problems.

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